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What happens when a chain ladder lands on a table? Great video and concept by Andy Ruina. Let me know if you want me to post a follow up explaining the answer.

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The Big Misconception About Electricity

The misconception is that electrons carry potential energy around a complete conducting loop, transferring their energy to the load. This video was sponsored by Caséta by Lutron. Learn more at https://Lutron.com/veritasium Further analysis of the large circuit is available here: https://ve42.co/bigcircuit Special thanks to Dr Geraint Lewis for bringing up this question in the first place and discussing it with us. Check out his and Dr Chris Ferrie’s new book here: https://ve42.co/Universe2021 Special thanks to Dr Robert Olsen for his expertise. He quite literally wrote the book on transmission lines, which you can find here: https://ve42.co/Olsen2018 Special thanks to Dr Richard Abbott for running a real-life experiment to test the model. Huge thanks to all of the experts we talked to for this video -- Dr Karl Berggren, Dr Bruce Hunt, Dr Paul Stanley, Dr Joe Steinmeyer, Ian Sefton, and Dr David G Vallancourt. ▀▀▀ References: A great video about the Poynting vector by the Science Asylum: https://youtu.be/C7tQJ42nGno Sefton, I. M. (2002). Understanding electricity and circuits: What the text books don’t tell you. In Science Teachers’ Workshop. -- https://ve42.co/Sefton Feynman, R. P., Leighton, R. B., & Sands, M. (1965). The feynman lectures on physics; vol. Ii, chapter 27. American Journal of Physics, 33(9), 750-752. -- https://ve42.co/Feynman27 Hunt, B. J. (2005). The Maxwellians. Cornell University Press. Müller, R. (2012). A semiquantitative treatment of surface charges in DC circuits. American Journal of Physics, 80(9), 782-788. -- https://ve42.co/Muller2012 Galili, I., & Goihbarg, E. (2005). Energy transfer in electrical circuits: A qualitative account. American journal of physics, 73(2), 141-144. -- https://ve42.co/Galili2004 Deno, D. W. (1976). Transmission line fields. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, 95(5), 1600-1611. -- https://ve42.co/Deno76 ▀▀▀ Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Luis Felipe, Anton Ragin, Paul Peijzel, S S, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson,Ron Neal Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev Animation by Mike Radjabov and Ivy Tello Filmed by Derek Muller and Emily Zhang Footage of the sun by Raquel Nuno Edited by Derek Muller Additional video supplied by Getty Images Music from Epidemic Sound Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

The Surprising Secret of Synchronization

How does order spontaneously arise out of chaos? This video is sponsored by Kiwico — go to https://www.kiwico.com/Veritasium50 for 50% off your first month of any crate. An enormous thanks to Prof. Steven Strogatz — this video would not have been possible without him. Much of the script-writing was inspired and informed by his wonderful book Sync, and his 2004 TED talk. He is a giant in this field, and has literally written the book on chaos, complexity, and synchronization. It was hard to find a paper in this field that Steven (or one of his students) didn't contribute to. His Podcast "The Joy of X" is wonderful — please listen and subscribe wherever you get your podcasts https://www.quantamagazine.org/tag/the-joy-of-x Nicky Case's Amazing Firefly Interactive — https://ncase.me/fireflies Great Kuramoto Model Interactive — https://www.complexity-explorables.org/explorables/ride-my-kuramotocycle References: Strogatz, S. H. (2012). Sync: How order emerges from chaos in the universe, nature, and daily life. Hachette UK. — https://ve42.co/Sync Strogatz, S. H. (2000). From Kuramoto to Crawford: exploring the onset of synchronization in populations of coupled oscillators. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, 143(1-4), 1-20. — https://ve42.co/Strogatz2000 Goldsztein, G. H., Nadeau, A. N., & Strogatz, S. H. (2021). Synchronization of clocks and metronomes: A perturbation analysis based on multiple timescales. Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 31(2), 023109. — https://ve42.co/Goldsztein The Broughton Suspension Bridge and the Resonance Disaster — https://ve42.co/Broughton Bennett, M., Schatz, M. F., Rockwood, H., & Wiesenfeld, K. (2002). Huygens's clocks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 458(2019), 563-579. — https://ve42.co/Bennett2002 Pantaleone, J. (2002). Synchronization of metronomes. American Journal of Physics, 70(10), 992-1000. — https://ve42.co/Pantaleone2002 Kuramoto, Y. (1975). Self-entrainment of a population of coupled non-linear oscillators. In International symposium on mathematical problems in theoretical physics (pp. 420-422). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. -- https://ve42.co/Kuramoto1975 Great video by Minute Earth about Tidal Locking and the Moon — https://ve42.co/MinuteEarth Strogatz, S. H., Abrams, D. M., McRobie, A., Eckhardt, B., & Ott, E. (2005). Crowd synchrony on the Millennium Bridge. Nature, 438(7064), 43-44. — https://ve42.co/Strogatz2005 Zhabotinsky, A. M. (2007). Belousov-zhabotinsky reaction. Scholarpedia, 2(9), 1435. — https://ve42.co/Zhabotinsky2007 Flavio H Fenton et al. (2008) Cardiac arrhythmia. Scholarpedia, 3(7):1665. — https://ve42.co/Cardiac Cherry, E. M., & Fenton, F. H. (2008). Visualization of spiral and scroll waves in simulated and experimental cardiac tissue. New Journal of Physics, 10(12), 125016. — https://ve42.co/Cherry2008 Tyson, J. J. (1994). What everyone should know about the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. In Frontiers in mathematical biology (pp. 569-587). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. — https://ve42.co/Tyson1994 Winfree, A. T. (2001). The geometry of biological time (Vol. 12). Springer Science & Business Media. — https://ve42.co/Winfree2001 The Manim Community Developers. (2021). Manim – Mathematical Animation Framework (Version v0.13.1) [Computer software]. https://www.manim.community/ Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mac Malkawi, Oleksii Leonov, Michael Schneider, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Lyvann Ferrusca, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev Animation by Fabio Albertelli and Jakub Misiek Simulations and 3D Animation by Jonny Hyman Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno Edited by Derek Muller Additional video supplied by Getty Images Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci More footage from NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio 100 metronome video from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=suxu1bmPm2g Intro animation by Jorge Cham Thanks for the BZ footage from SteinbockGroup: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJn1ssZEyns and NileRed https://youtu.be/LL3kVtc-4vY Animation of waves in the heart from The Virtual Heart/ EM Cherry/ FH Fenton — https://ve42.co/Cardiac and https://ve42.co/Cherry2008 Chemical materials and protocol provided by Mike Morris and the UCI Chemistry Outreach Program https://www.chem.uci.edu/~jsnowick/outreach/UCI_Outreach/index.html Thanks to Alie Ward for title/thumbnail consultation Thanks to Dr Juliette Becker and Dr James O'Donoghue for the planetary science help Music from Jonny Hyman, Epidemic Sound https://epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Deeper Than The Ocean" "Ripple Effect" Music also from Artlist https://artlist.com "Children of Mystery" Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci

The Illusion Only Some People Can See

Ames window illusion illustrates how we don't directly perceive external reality. Special Holiday deal! Go to https://NordVPN.com/veritasium and use code VERITASIUM to get 68% off a 2 year plan plus 4 additional months free. It’s risk free with Nord’s 30 day money-back guarantee! Special thanks to: Prof. Phil Kellman from UCLA Psychology https://kellmanlab.psych.ucla.edu Museum of Illusions in Los Angeles for the use of their Ames Room https://laillusions.com Curiosity Show - Video on Ames Illusion: https://youtu.be/DkVOIJAaWO0 References: Ames, A., Jr. (1951). Visual perception and the rotating trapezoidal window. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 65(7), i–32. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0093600 Marcel de Heer & Thomas V. Papathomas (2017) The Ames Window Illusion and Its Variations DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794607.003.0014 Oross, Stephen, Francis, Ellie, Mauk, Deborah & Fox, Robert. (1987). The Ames Window Illusion: Perception of Illusory Motion by Human Infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 13(4), 609-613. Behrens, R. (1987). The Life and Unusual Ideas of Adelbert Ames, Jr. Leonardo, 20(3), 273-279. doi:10.2307/1578173 Burnham, C., & Ono, H. (1969). Variables Altering Perception of the Rotating Trapezoidal Illusion. The American Journal of Psychology, 82(1), 86-95. doi:10.2307/1420609 Allport, G. W., & Pettigrew, T. F. (1957). Cultural influence on the perception of movement: The trapezoidal illusion among Zulus. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55(1), 104–113. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0049372 Zenhausern R. Effect of Perspective on Two Trapezoid Illusions. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1969;28(3):1003-1009. doi:10.2466/pms.1969.28.3.1003 Gehringer, W. L., & Engel, E. (1986). Effect of ecological viewing conditions on the Ames' distorted room illusion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 12(2), 181–185. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.12.2.181 Long, G.M., Toppino, T.C. Adaptation effects and reversible figures: A comment on Horlitz and O’Leary. Perception & Psychophysics 56, 605–610 (1994). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03206956 Gregory RL. Looking through the Ames window. Perception. 2009;38(12):1739-40. doi: 10.1068/p3812ed. PMID: 20192124. Jahoda, G. (1966). Geometric illusions and environment: A study in Ghana. British Journal of Psychology, 57(1-2), 193–199. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1966.tb01019.x V. Mary Stewart (1974) A Cross-Cultural Test of the “Carpentered World” Hypothesis Using The Ames Distorted Room Illusion, International Journal of Psychology, 9:2, 79-89, DOI: 10.1080/00207597408247094 Margaret Kathleen Cappone (1966) The Effect of Verbal Suggestion on the Reversal Rate of the Ames Trapezoid Illusion, The Journal of Psychology, 62:2, 211-219, DOI: 10.1080/00223980.1966.10543786 Researched and written by Petr Lebedev and Derek Muller Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno Animations, VFX, and Music by Jonny Hyman Ames Room VFX and additional Ames Window animation by Nicolas Pratt Additional Music from https://epidemicsound.com "Life in Color" "Singularity" Large Ames window construction by GW Construction Video supplied by Getty Images

How Hidden Technology Transformed Bowling

Bowling has been reinvented many times over the past seven thousand years but especially in the last 30. This is the fascinating physics of balls, oil, lane and pins. A portion of this video was sponsored by Salesforce. Go to https://salesforce.com/veritasium to learn more. Huge thanks to Steve Kloempken and all of Storm Bowling for letting us visit and get a glimpse into the crazy world of bowling. Huge thanks to legends Chris Barnes and Pete Weber for taking the time to bowl with us. Huge thanks to Creative Electron for their help with getting the bowling balls X-rayed. Check out their work here: https://creativeelectron.com/ Thanks to Ron Hatfield and James Freeman for their help with research. Check out their great book, Bowling Beyond the Basics: https://ve42.co/HatfieldFreeman Thanks to the United States Bowling Congress (USBC) and Professional Bowlers Association (PBA) for their help with accessing archival data and footage. Special thanks to Rod Cross for physics consultation. Thanks to Bill Guszczo for giving us the idea to make this video in the first place. ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀ References: Freeman, James, and Ron Hatfield. Bowling beyond the Basics: What's Really Happening on the Lanes, and What You Can Do about It. BowlSmart, 2018. -- https://ve42.co/HatfieldFreeman N. Stremmel, P. Ridenour and S. Sterbenz. “Identifying the Critical Factors That Contribute to Bowling Ball Motion on a Bowling Lane.” United States Bowling Congress, 2008. -- https://ve42.co/BallMotionASQ USBC Equipment Specifications and Certification Team. “Ball Motion Study: Phase I and II Final Report.” United States Bowling Congress, 2008. -- https://ve42.co/USBCBallMotion Brettingen, Patrick, and Nicki Mours. “USBC static weight limits remain relevant.” United States Bowling Congress, 2011. -- https://ve42.co/USBCStaticWeight Article on lane oil origins -- https://ve42.co/OilOrigins Luna, Richard. “Bruce Pluckhahn says there's a little bit of bowling…” United Press International Archives, 1984. -- https://ve42.co/BowlingHistory Johnson, Brody D. “The Physics of Bowling: How good bowlers stay off the straight and narrow.” St. Louis University. -- https://ve42.co/JohnsonPhysicsPpt Talamo, Jim. “The Physics of Bowling Balls.” -- https://ve42.co/TalamoPhysicsPpt Thompson, Ted. “Breakdown and Carrydown - Then and Now.” Kegel. 2012. -- https://ve42.co/ThompsonKegel Frohlich, Cliff. “What Makes Bowling Balls Hook?” American Journal of Physics, vol. 72, no. 9, 2004, pp. 1170–1177., https://doi.org/10.1119/1.1767099. -- https://ve42.co/FrohlichHook Article on bowling’s ranking in participatory sports -- https://ve42.co/BowlingRank Speranza, Dan, and Dave Nestor. “Initial Oil Absorption Results.” United States Bowling Congress, 2016. -- https://ve42.co/USBCOilAbsorption D. Benner, N. Mours, and P. Ridenour. “Pin Carry Study: Bowl Expo 2009.” United States Bowling Congress, 2009. -- https://ve42.co/USBCPinCarry Hopkins, D. C., and J. D. Patterson. “Bowling Frames: Paths of a Bowling Ball.” American Journal of Physics, vol. 45, no. 3, 1977, pp. 263–266., https://doi.org/10.1119/1.11005. -- https://ve42.co/HopkinsPath Normani, Franco. “The Physics of Bowling.” Real World Physics Problems. -- https://ve42.co/NormaniPhysics Horaczek, Stan. “The insides of pro bowling balls will make your head spin.” Popular Science, 2020. -- https://ve42.co/HoraczekSpin House shot oil pattern -- https://ve42.co/HouseOil. Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 4.0. ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀ Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Andrew, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Big Badaboom, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal Written by Derek Muller and Emily Zhang Animations by Mike Radjabov and Ivy Tello Filmed by Derek Muller, Trenton Oliver, and Emily Zhang Edited by Trenton Oliver SFX by Shaun Clifford Additional video supplied by Getty Images Music from Epidemic Sounds Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

This is why we can't have nice things

This video is about stuff: light bulbs, printers, phones and why they aren't better. Go to https://NordVPN.com/veritasium and use code VERITASIUM to get a 2-year plan plus 1 additional month with a huge discount. It’s risk free with Nord’s 30 day money-back guarantee! References: The Man in the White Suit — https://ve42.co/Suit London, B. (1932). Ending the depression through planned obsolescence. — https://ve42.co/London32 Slade, G. (2009). Made to break: Technology and obsolescence in America. Harvard University Press — https://ve42.co/madetobreak Krajewski, M. (2014). The great lightbulb conspiracy. IEEE spectrum, 51(10), 56-61. — https://ve42.co/Phoebus Planet Money, The Phoebus Cartel - https://ve42.co/PMobs The Light Bulb Conspiracy - https://youtu.be/e9xmn228HM0 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mac Malkawi, Oleksii Leonov, Michael Schneider, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Lyvann Ferrusca, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev Animation by Ivy Tello Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno Edited by Derek Muller Video supplied by Getty Images Music by Jonny Hyman and from https://epidemicsound.com"Aquatic Planet", "Rhythm of Dreams", "Tread Lightly", "Unexpected Visitors", "Curved Mirrors" "Drunken Lullaby" "Fluorescent Lights" Thumbnail by Raquel Nuno and Karri Denise